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SAVAM — Semiautomatic Visual-Attention Modeling

MSU Graphics & Media Lab (Video Group)

Projects, ideas: Dr. Dmitriy Vatolin, Prof. Galina Rozhkova
Implementation: Mikhail Erofeev, Yury Gitman, Andrey Bolshakov, Alexey Fedorov
In cooperation with IITP RAS

The database


Introduction


The maps of attention can be applied in many fields: user interface design, computer graphics, video processing, etc. Many technologies, algorithms and filters can be improved using information about the saliency distribution. During our work we have created the database of human eye-movements captured while viewing various videos (static and dynamic scenes, shots from cinema-like films and scientific databases)

Features/Benefits


High quality

  • Includes only FullHD and 4K UHDTV video sequences
  • Includes only stereoscopic video sequences
  • Eye-movements were captured with high quality eye-tracking device: SMI iViewXTM Hi-Speed 1250, with a 500 Hz frequency (20 fixations per frame)
  • Additional post-processing was applied to improve records' accuracy

Diversity

  • 43 fragments of motion video from various feature movies, commercial clips and stereo video databases
  • About 13 minutes of video (19760 frames)
  • 50 observers of different ages (mostly between 18–27 years old)
Please note: while the database contains S3D videos actually, only the left view was demonstrated to observers.

Data post-processing


To improve data's accuracy several levels of verification and correction were applied.

The test sequence was divided into three five-minute parts. Before each part, we carried out the calibration procedure. The observer followed a target that was placed successively at 13 locations across the screen. Next, we validated the calibration by measuring the error of the gaze position at four points. If the estimated error was greater than 0.3 angular degrees, we restarted the calibration.

To reduce inter-video influence we inserted cross-fade by adding a black frame between adjacent scenes. Additionally, to measure observer's fatigue we placed a special pattern after each three-scene part. We asked observers to track a stimulus, enabling us to measure the squared tracking error, which we defined as the fatigue value. On the next step, we improve the accuracy of determining the position of gaze using transformation, which is obtained by averaging of eye tracking data on calibrate pattern.

To understand the influence of an observer's fatigue on fixations at the end of a sequence, we asked eight observers to view the whole sequence a second time with the scenes appearing in reverse order.


Downloads


Paper

Accepted version of the paper: Download

Published version of the paper: IEEE link

Robust Saliency Map Comparison

Saliency maps comparison method invariant to most common transforms.

View on GitHub

The Base of Gaze Map

To download the database, please fill-in the request form.
You will get the download link for all data via e-mail.


Reference


Citation

Y. Gitman, M. Erofeev, D. Vatolin, A. Bolshakov, A. Fedorov. "Semiautomatic Visual-Attention Modeling and Its Application to Video Compression". 2014 IEEE International Conference on Image Processing (ICIP). Paris, France, pp. 1105-1109.

Bibtex

  @INPROCEEDINGS {
    Gitm1410:Semiautomatic,
    AUTHOR    = "Yury Gitman and Mikhail Erofeev and Dmitriy Vatolin
                 and Andrey Bolshakov and Alexey Fedorov",
    TITLE     = "Semiautomatic {Visual-Attention} Modeling and Its 
                 Application to Video Compression",
    BOOKTITLE = "2014 IEEE International Conference on Image Processing
                 (ICIP) (ICIP 2014)",
    ADDRESS   = "Paris, France",
    PAGES     = "1105-1109",
    DAYS      =  27,
    MONTH     =  oct,
    YEAR      =  2014,
    KEYWORDS  = "Saliency;Visual attention;Eye-tracking;Saliencyaware 
                 compression;H.264",
  }
	

Application to video compression


x264, 1920x1080, 1500 kbps

x264, 1920x1080, 1500 kbps

x264, 1920x1080, 1500 kbps

x264, 1920x1080, 1500 kbps

x264, 1920x1080, 1500 kbps

x264, 1920x1080, 1500 kbps

x264, 1920x1080, 1500 kbps

x264, 1920x1080, 1500 kbps


Acknowledgments


This work was supported by the Intel/Cisco Video Aware Wireless Networking (VAWN) Program. We acknowledge Institute of Information Transmission Problems for help with eye tracking.
Video resources:

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Last updated: 11-February-2015

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Project sponsored by YUVsoft Corp.

Project supported by MSU Graphics & Media Lab

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